Download and read online Decision making under uncertainty in PDF and EPUB Introduction and basic concepts; Models and probability; Choices and preferences; Preference assessment procedures; Behavioral assumptions and limitations of decision analysis; Risk sharing and incentives; Choices with multiple attributes.
Download and read online Decision Making Under Uncertainty in PDF and EPUB An introduction to decision making under uncertainty from a computational perspective, covering both theory and applications ranging from speech recognition to airborne collision avoidance.
Download and read online Stochastic Dominance in PDF and EPUB This fully updated third edition is devoted to the analysis of various Stochastic Dominance (SD) decision rules. It discusses the pros and cons of each of the alternate SD rules, the application of these rules to various research areas like statistics, agriculture, medicine, measuring income inequality and the poverty level in various countries, and of course, to investment decision-making under uncertainty. The book features changes and additions to the various chapters, and also includes two completely new chapters. One deals with asymptotic SD and the relation between FSD and the maximum geometric mean (MGM) rule (or the maximum growth portfolio). The other new chapter discusses bivariate SD rules where the individual’s utility is determined not only by his own wealth, but also by his standing relative to his peer group. Stochastic Dominance: Investment Decision Making under Uncertainty, 3rd Ed. covers the following basic issues: the SD approach, asymptotic SD rules, the mean-variance (MV) approach, as well as the non-expected utility approach. The non-expected utility approach focuses on Regret Theory (RT) and mainly on prospect theory (PT) and its modified version, cumulative prospect theory (CPT) which assumes S-shape preferences. In addition to these issues the book suggests a new stochastic dominance rule called the Markowitz stochastic dominance (MSD) rule corresponding to all reverse-S-shape preferences. It also discusses the concept of the multivariate expected utility and analyzed in more detail the bivariate expected utility case. From the reviews of the second edition: "This book is an economics book about stochastic dominance. ... is certainly a valuable reference for graduate students interested in decision making under uncertainty. It investigates and compares different approaches and presents many examples. Moreover, empirical studies and experimental results play an important role in this book, which makes it interesting to read." (Nicole Bäuerle, Mathematical Reviews, Issue 2007 d)
Download and read online What Every Engineer Should Know About Decision Making Under Uncertainty in PDF and EPUB Covering the prediction of outcomes for engineering decisions through regression analysis, this succinct and practical reference presents statistical reasoning and interpretational techniques to aid in the decision making process when faced with engineering problems. The author emphasizes the use of spreadsheet simulations and decision trees as important tools in the practical application of decision making analyses and models to improve real-world engineering operations. He offers insight into the realities of high-stakes engineering decision making in the investigative and corporate sectors by optimizing engineering decision variables to maximize payoff.
Download and read online Decision Making Under Uncertainty in Electricity Markets in PDF and EPUB Decision Making Under Uncertainty in Electricity Markets provides models and procedures to be used by electricity market agents to make informed decisions under uncertainty. These procedures rely on well established stochastic programming models, which make them efficient and robust. Particularly, these techniques allow electricity producers to derive offering strategies for the pool and contracting decisions in the futures market. Retailers use these techniques to derive selling prices to clients and energy procurement strategies through the pool, the futures market and bilateral contracting. Using the proposed models, consumers can derive the best energy procurement strategies using the available trading floors. The market operator can use the techniques proposed in this book to clear simultaneously energy and reserve markets promoting efficiency and equity. The techniques described in this book are of interest for professionals working on energy markets, and for graduate students in power engineering, applied mathematics, applied economics, and operations research.
Download and read online Principles of Risk Analysis in PDF and EPUB In every decision context there are things we know and things we do not know. Risk analysis uses science and the best available evidence to assess what we know—and it is intentional in the way it addresses the importance of the things we don’t know. Principles of Risk Analysis: Decision Making Under Uncertainty lays out the tasks of risk analysis in a straightforward, conceptual manner that is consistent with the risk models of all communities of practice. It answers the questions "what is risk analysis?" and "how do I do this?" Distilling the common principles of the many risk tribes and dialects into serviceable definitions and narratives, the book provides a foundation for the practice of risk analysis and decision making under uncertainty for professionals from all walks of life. In the first part of the book, readers learn the language, models, and concepts of risk analysis and its three component tasks—risk management, assessment, and communication. The second part of the book supplies the tools, techniques, and methodologies to help readers apply the principles. From problem identification and brainstorming to model building and choosing a probability distribution, the author walks readers through the how-to of risk assessment. Addressing the critical task of risk communication, he explains how to present the results of assessments and how to develop effective messages. The book’s simple and straightforward style—based on the author’s decades of experience as a risk analyst, trainer, and educator—strips away the mysterious aura that often accompanies risk analysis. It describes the principles in a manner that empowers readers to begin the practice of risk analysis, to better understand and use the models and practice of their individual fields, and to gain access to the rich and sophisticated professional literature on risk analysis. Additional exercises as well as a free student version of the Palisade Corporation DecisionTools® Suite software and files used in the preparation of this book are available for download.
Download and read online Primer on Risk Analysis in PDF and EPUB In every decision context there are things we know and things we do not know. Risk analysis uses science and the best available evidence to assess what we know—and it is intentional in the way it addresses the importance of the things we don’t know. Primer on Risk Analysis: Decision Making Under Uncertainty lays out the tasks of risk analysis in a straightforward, conceptual manner that is consistent with the risk models of all communities of practice. This primer tackles the question, "what is risk analysis?" Distilling the common principles of the many risk tribes and dialects into serviceable definitions and narratives, it provides a foundation for the practice of risk analysis and decision making under uncertainty for professionals from all walks of life. Readers learn the language, models, and concepts of risk analysis and its three component tasks—risk management, assessment, and communication. Making a distinction between knowledge uncertainty and natural variability, the book also introduces a down-to-earth approach to decision making under uncertainty. Extensive examples illustrate the applicability of the risk analysis principles. The book’s simple and straightforward style—based on the author’s decades of experience as a risk analyst, trainer, and educator—strips away the mysterious aura that often accompanies risk analysis. It describes the principles of risk analysis in a manner that enables readers to better understand and use the models and practice of their individual fields, and to gain access to the rich and sophisticated professional literature on risk analysis. A companion volume, Principles of Risk Analysis: Decision Making Under Uncertainty, supplies the tools, techniques, and methodologies to help readers apply the principles of risk analysis—the "how to." Additional exercises, as well as a free student version of the Palisade Corporation DecisionTools® Suite software and files used in the preparation of this book are available for download.
Download and read online Decision making Under Uncertainty in PDF and EPUB In real-life decision-making situations it is necessary to make decisions with incomplete information, for oftentimes uncertain results. In Decision-Making Under Uncertainty, Dr. Chacko applies his years of statistical research and experience to the analysis of twenty-four real-life decision-making situations, both those with few data points (eg: Cuban Missile Crisis), and many data points (eg: aspirin for heart attack prevention). These situations encompass decision-making in a variety of business, social and political, physical and biological, and military environments. Though different, all of these have one characteristic in common: their outcomes are uncertain/unkown, and unknowable. Chacko Demonstrates how the decision-maker can reduce uncertainty by choosing probable outcomes using the statistical methods he introduces. This detailed volume develops standard statistical concepts (t, x2, normal distribution, ANOVA), and the less familiar concepts (logical probability, subjective probability, Bayesian Inference, Penalty for Non-Fulfillment, Bluff-Threats Matrix, etc.). Chacko also offers a thorough discussion of the underlying theoretical principles. The end of each chapter contains a set of questions, three quarters of which focus on concepts, formulation, conclusion, resource commitments, and caveats; only one quarter with computations. Ideal for the practitioner, the work is also designed to serve as the primary text for graduate or advanced undergraduate courses in statistics and decision science.
Download and read online Financial Decision Making Under Uncertainty in PDF and EPUB Financial Dec Making under Uncertainty
Download and read online Decision making under uncertainty in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Decision Making Under Risk and Uncertainty in PDF and EPUB As desired, the infonnation demand correspondence is single valued at equilibrium prices. Hence no planner is needed to assign infonnation allocations to individuals. Proposition 4. For any given infonnation price system p E . P (F *), almost every a E A demands a unique combined infonnation structure (although traders may be indifferent among partial infonnation sales from different information allocations, etc. ). In particular, the aggregate excess demand correspondence for net combined infonnation trades is a continuous function. Proof Uniqueness fails only if an agent can obtain the same expected utility from two or more net combined infonnation allocations. If this happens, appropriate slight perturbations of personal probability vectors destroy the equality unless the utility functions and wealth allocations were independent across states. Yet, when utilities and wealths don't depend on states in S, no infonnation to distinguish the states is desired, so that the demand for such infonnation structures must equal zero. To show the second claim, recall that if the correspondence is single valued for almost every agent, then its integral is also single valued. Finally, note that an upper hemicontinuous (by Proposition 2) correspondence which is single valued everywhere is, in fact, a continuous function.  REFERENCES Allen, Beth (1986a). "The Demand for (Differentiated) Infonnation"; Review of Economic Studies. 53. (311-323). Allen, Beth (1986b). "General Equilibrium with Infonnation Sales"; Theory and Decision. 21. (1-33). Allen, Beth (1990). "Infonnation as an Economic Commodity"; American Economic Review. 80. (268-273).
Download and read online Interactive Multiobjective Decision Making Under Uncertainty in PDF and EPUB Recently, many books on multiobjective programming have been published. However, only a few books have been published, in which multiobjective programming under the randomness and the fuzziness are investigated. On the other hand, several books on multilevel programming have been published, in which multiple decision makers are involved in hierarchical decision situations. In this book, we introduce the latest advances in the field of multiobjective programming and multilevel programming under uncertainty. The reader can immediately use proposed methods to solve multiobjective programming and multilevel programming, which are based on linear programming or convex programming technique. Organization of each capter is summarized as follows. In Chapter 2, multiobjective programming problems with random variables are formulated, and the corresponding interactive algorithms are developed to obtain a satisfactory solution, in which the fuzziness of human's subjective judgment for permission levels are considered. In Chapter 3, multiobjective programming problems with fuzzy random variables are formulated, and the corresponding interactive algorithms are developed to obtain a satisfactory solution, in which not only the uncertainty of fuzzy random variables but also the fuzziness of human's subjective judgment for permission levels are considered. In Chapter 4, multiobjective multilevel programming is discussed, and the interactive algorithms are developed to obtain a satisfactory solution, in which the hierarchical decision structure of multiple decision makers is reflected. In Chapter 5, two kinds of farm planning problems are solved by applying the proposed method, in which cost coefficients of crops are expressed by random variables.
Download and read online Bounded Rationality in Decision Making Under Uncertainty Towards Optimal Granularity in PDF and EPUB This book addresses an intriguing question: are our decisions rational? It explains seemingly irrational human decision-making behavior by taking into account our limited ability to process information. It also shows with several examples that optimization under granularity restriction leads to observed human decision-making. Drawing on the Nobel-prize-winning studies by Kahneman and Tversky, researchers have found many examples of seemingly irrational decisions: e.g., we overestimate the probability of rare events. Our explanation is that since human abilities to process information are limited, we operate not with the exact values of relevant quantities, but with “granules” that contain these values. We show that optimization under such granularity indeed leads to observed human behavior. In particular, for the first time, we explain the mysterious empirical dependence of betting odds on actual probabilities. This book can be recommended to all students interested in human decision-making, to researchers whose work involves human decisions, and to practitioners who design and employ systems involving human decision-making —so that they can better utilize our ability to make decisions under uncertainty.
Download and read online Managerial Decisions Under Uncertainty in PDF and EPUB How to improve decision-making skills in realistic situations and do it in a reasonably nonmathematical fashion. Develops practical techniques for deciding upon the best strategies in a variety of situations. Provides methods for reducing complex problems to easily-drawn decision diagrams (trees), supported by real-world examples. Includes detailed cases that employ the methods described in the text. Each chapter contains illustrative examples and exercises.
Download and read online Decision making Under Uncertainty in PDF and EPUB This book systematically develops essential concepts in the economics of uncertainty and game theory. It also presents new ideas for further research. The first part deals with the economics of uncertainty, including a discussion of expected utility theory and non-expected utility theories, insurance market, portfolio analysis, principal-agent theory, as well as ethical issues presented in the context of choice under uncertainty. The second part develops an understanding of game theory as a tool for analysing the interactive decision-making process.